Posts by "vida" | total -- (4)

WORD ECONOMY! Say more with Less 101

Word economy is the practice of using fewer words to say more. It means revising your work to eliminate redundant, unnecessary, or weak words and phrases. To make your writing and speaking stronger, clearer.


Once you practice word economy enough, you will teach yourself how to be more clear. So your mental revision process won’t be so daunting and time-consuming.

Where to start?



Begin to train yourself to use fewer and better words by highlight all the verbs. Write out your thoughts or speech. Are the verbs the strongest?

Consider the sentence “The girl sat on the fence”, “perched” is a stronger synonym for “sat.” The girl perched on the fence.




Get rid of any words or phrases that might now be redundant or unnecessary. Replacing the strongest verb can drop the need for 'more' information in a given sentence. Also check for words and phrases you’re saying more than once. What is the most efficient way to say it?


Weak details


When adding details, make sure the ones you choose are the best they can be. Identify details that might not be adding enough, or anything at all, to your story. Details are great, IF they’re working as hard as they can to convey your intended meaning. Trim away details that are weakening your story. They either aren’t necessary or they aren’t specific, accurate, or interesting enough.

Integrate these practices and you’ll say more by saying less.

Creative problem statements for effective systems

A snippet from other great blog articles!

Einstein quoted, that if he had one hour to save the world he would spend ''fifty-five minutes defining the problem and only five minutes finding the solution.''

This quote illustrates an important point, before jumping right into solving a problem. We should step back and invest time and effort to improve our understanding of it. Here are strategies you can use to see problems from many different perspectives.


Don't structure a question and then look for answers. Develop a system about the process of understanding beyond what surface. Rephrase the problem question. When an executive asked employees to brainstorm “ways to increase their productivity”. All he got back were blank stares. When he rephrased his request as “ways to make their jobs easier”. He could barely keep up with the amount of suggestions.


Words carry strong implicit meaning and so play a major role in how we perceive a problem. In the example above, ‘Have a Productive Day or be productive’ might seem like a sacrifice. While ‘make your job easier’ may be more like something you’re doing for your own benefit. But from which the company also benefits. In the end, the problem is still the same. The feelings and the points of view associated with each of them are vastly different. Many don't see the important of asking a question in such a way that an answer becomes available. Play freely with the problem statement, rewording it several times. For a methodical approach, take single words and substitute variations.


‘Increase sales’? Try replacing ‘increase’ with ‘attract’, ‘develop’, ‘extend’, ‘repeat’. See how your perception of the problem changes. A rich vocabulary plays an important role here. So you may want to use a thesaurus or develop your vocabulary.

Every problem, no matter how simple it may be comes with a long list of assumptions attached. Many of these assumptions may be inaccurate. They can make your problem statement inadequate or even misguided.

If you don't start with the core of the subject it's easy to focus on the wrong detail. It isn’t until you cut the inessential from your problem that you can begin to see the real problem.

The first step to get rid of bad assumptions is to make them explicit. Write a list and expose as many assumptions as you can — especially those that may seem the most obvious and ‘untouchable’. That, in itself, brings more clarity to the problem at hand. Essentially, you need to learn to

Think in ways that they might not be valid and their consequences. What you will find may surprise you: that many of those bad assumptions are self-imposed — with just a bit of scrutiny you are able to safely drop them. Read up on Be a Skeptic|How to Be a Skeptic.

For example, suppose you’re about to Open a Restaurant|enter the restaurant business.

One of your assumptions might be ‘restaurants have a menu’. While such an assumption may seem true at first, try challenging it and maybe you’ll find some very interesting business models (such as one restaurant in which customers bring dish ideas for the chef to cook, for example).

Don't get stuck in your own frame of reference.

Replacing words in the problem statement

Replacing words in the problem statement with hypernyms. Hypernyms are words that have a broader meaning than the given word. (For example, a hypernym of ‘car’ is ‘vehicle’). A great, free tool for finding hypernyms for a given word is WordNet.

A good question worth asking is whether the "problem" you're defining is really just a symptom of a deeper problem. For example, a Save Energy in Your Home | high heating bill might be the "problem" and an obvious solution would be to check to see if your heating system is broken, or needs updating for better efficiency. But maybe the bigger problem is that the people in your house use heat wastefully—and might that be? Because they don't perceive the negative consequences; they don't have to pay the bill themselves, perhaps, so they're not conscious of how wasting heat will affect them.

Problem-solving florishes when it's a product of both critical and creative thinking. Combine them with a process in place that allows each to do it's part.


OOP! Python 'classes' & 'objects' -- it's finally making sense.

PretextI am a Python beginner. Since I have no previous learning experience in programming languages, when I learned Python classes and objects, I struggled understanding it. The main idea seemed to make sense but I was lost in it all the same. 

While in china visiting my wifes family, I found a blog  (in chinese translated to english) by Long Ge who truly explained this in a way I finally understood. The author himself come to find out had watched a video by John Philip Jones , on YouTube and found a tutorial on Python classes and objects . Most of what I write is taking from these two people who helped me better understand OOP.

Lets have a look at the classes and objects. We will discuss the relationship between both. But before we get into Python classes and objects I want to use an analogy. Using the principles of building things in life. Weather it's a house, or a boat, or a cake they all need a plan, a blue print of sorts, a recipe.

Recipe (made up of Ingredients)  Manufacturing Process (set of instructions) 

-----A RECIPE (Set of Ingredients)-----------Manufacturing Process (set of Instructions)-------------------BluePrint (set of guidelines)-----


If you're going to build a home the first thing you need is a blueprint. From this blueprint you could construct your home.

Equally, if you were to build a cake the first thing you'd need is a recipe. And so a Class in Python is nothing more than a set of instructions.



You can see we've built a house from the blueprint, of course using the same blueprint you can build another house and another...

So these three houses all share something in common, they have all the same blueprint. (Separate Objects from the same Class)





A Class is like the blueprint while the Object is the house created from the Class or blueprint. 


So, a constructed house is an Object. Something you can use and work with. In Python, ' everything is an object ', which is what everyone calls object oriented.

When we say in python:

>>> box = "apple"

Python notices a string " " and calls the str() Class to create this string Object.  

>>> type(box)

<class 'str'>

When we use a function called type, Python tells us what class (box) belongs to. In this case it's a 'STR' string Class.

>>> box2 = "oranges"

>>> type(box2)

<class 'str'>

Look closely as we create a new box2, it's also made from the same blueprint or Class as box was. They are both 'STR' belongin to the string Class in Python.

Now you could say box & box2 are Objects right...? Kind of, because they are more like addresses pointing to the Object "apple" and "oranges". 

Box and Box2 are Object Links or seperate house address containing the same blueprint or Class 'STR'.

>>> box = "apple"
>>> box2 = "oranges"

>>> f'TYPE:{type(box)} --> ID:{id(box)} --> VALUE:{box}'
'TYPE:<class 'str'> --> ID:62577760 --> VALUE:apple'

>>> f'TYPE:{type(box2)} --> ID:{id(box2)} --> VALUE:{box2}'
'TYPE:<class 'str'> --> ID:68662400 --> VALUE:oranges'

Let's review, when you type on the keyboard >>> box = "apple" and hit enter:

1. You awaken a String Class <class 'str'> inside Python.

2. Which then creates an Object ("apple", 'str' class, ID:68662400) linked to the variable box.


Got it!

In our analogy, it'll go a little like this. 

When you (Bob) submit your home idea to a contruction company they give you an address for where your home will be built.

1. You begin construction

>>> bob = "home"    # 'bob' here is used as a variable to link the actual important stuff your home.

2. The construction company uses a Blueprint Class to build your home.

3. This creates your Object (physical house, 'blueprint class', address: 1150 McLane dr. Los Angeles CA 98402) linked to your name bob.


Now if we change box2 to "apple" what will happen:

>>> box = "apple"
>>> box2 = "apple"

>>> f'TYPE:{type(box)} --> ID:{id(box)} --> VALUE:{box}'
'TYPE:<class 'str'> --> ID:62577760 --> VALUE:apple'

>>> f'TYPE:{type(box2)} --> ID:{id(box2)} --> VALUE:{box2}'
'TYPE:<class 'str'> --> ID:62577760 --> VALUE:apple'

Python doesn't need to create a whole new Object it just links box2 to the Object already created which match your request.

>>> box == box2


Now box and box2 are literally the same Object, they have the same ID address, Class, and Value.

Let's not think anymore of placing "apple" in a box but move on to a greater understanding of what is actually happening. The Object that is made and the variable that is used to link to that Object.

Think how cool this is... knowing the true order of things.

class Bank:
    def __init__(self, balance, name):
        self.balance = balance = name
    def savings(self, deposit):
        self.balance += deposit
        return f'${self.balance}'
    def credit(self, withdrawal):
        self.balance -= withdrawal
        return f'${self.balance}'
    def __str__(self):
        return f'Balance: ${self.balance} ' \
               f'Name: {}'

user1 = Bank(150, "Davi")


class Bank:

    def __init__(self, balance, name):

        self.balance = balance = name

This __init__ is a command that initializes everytime automatically whenever that class is called. 

In our case we want to init a balance variable and a name variable. We will go into more depth later on self.balance and

Copy and Paste this example and being playing around with it. Explore and you'll start to understand all of these things better. 

Here is the tutorial that taught me pretty much all of this and more. :) Enjoy






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